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The Status Quo of General Relativity in Highschool Curricula  '''The Status Quo of General Relativity in High School Curricula''' 
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 Country  GR mentioned  GR not mentioned   Australia   x  
With contributions by Stuart Farmer, Lorenzo Galante, Fadeel Joubran, Magdalena Kersting, Gerd Kortemeyer, Ute Kraus, Richard Meagher, Alina Neumann, Joao Pereira. I) Overview Is GR mentioned in the curriculum of this country?  Country  yes  no  remarks   Australia   x  federal curriculum: no, state curricula?   Belgium (Flanders)   x  other regions?   Brazil (Rio de Janeiro)  x   other regions?   Czech Republic   x    Denmark   x    Finland   x    Germany  x  4 out of 16 states: yes, others: no   Hungary   x    Italy   x    Iceland   x    Israel   x    Netherlands   x    Norway  x     Scotland  x     Sweden  x     Switzerland  x   in some cantons, in some schools   Turkey  x     USA   x  federal curriculum: no  II) Content  country  curriculum on GR  remarks   Brazil (Rio de Janeiro)  Recognize the present models of the universe (stellar evolution, black holes, curved space and big bang)  Ensino Medio, age 15  Germany (Bremen)  Equivalence principle, experimental tests (precession of the perihelion of Mercury, light deflection near the sun, gravitational redshift)  advanced level, ages 1617  Germany (North RhineWestfalia)  Basic statements of GR: gravitational time dilation, equivalence principle, Gravitation and time measurement (describe qualitatively); gravitation, time measurement and curvature of space (illustrate using models and graphics); impact on physical world view  advanced level, ages 1617  Germany (Saarland)  Reference to GR as theory of gravitation and to its significance for astrophysics and cosmology  age 16   Germany (Saxony)  Evidence for the impact of gravitation on light: reference to GR, gravitation and curved spacetime, experiments with atomic clocks, black holes in the universe  standard level, age 16    Selected aspects of GR: gravitation and curved spacetime, experiments with atomic clocks, black holes in the universe, big bang theory  advanced level, age 16   Norway  … give a qualitative description of general relativity  upper secondary school   Scotland  Knowledge that special relativity deals with motion in inertial (nonaccelerating) frames of reference and that general relativity deals with motion in noninertial (accelerating) frames of reference.  Statement of the equivalence principle (that it is not possible to distinguish between the effects on an observer of a uniform gravitational field and of a constant acceleration) and awareness of its consequences.  Consideration of spacetime as a representation of four dimensional space.  Knowledge that light or a freely moving object follows a geodesic (the shortest distance between two points) in spacetime.  Knowledge that GR leads to the interpretation that mass curves spacetime, and that gravity arises from the curvature of spacetime.  Representation of World lines for objects which are stationary, moving with constant velocity and accelerating.  Use of an appropriate relationship to solve problems relating to the Schwarzschild radius of a black hole.  Knowledge that time appears to be frozen at the event horizon of a black hole.  Advanced Higher Physics, ages 1718   Sweden  … an introduction to the general theory of relativity    Switzerland  Basic principles of general relativity. // Basic principles of general relativity, experimental tests. // The students know ideas and basic concepts of general relativity in a qualitative way. // The students are given a short, qualitative insight into general relativity. // The students can explain the concept of spatial curvature using a simple example. // The students can state the limited field of application of special relativity and fundamental principles of general relativity using a simple example. // The students can explain the concept of spatial curvature using a simple example.  From individual cantonal and school curricula    The equivalence principle, the gravitational field, the curvature of spacetime  Implementation of a school curriculum   Turkey  Big Bang, Cosmological models   
The Status Quo of General Relativity in High School Curricula
With contributions by Stuart Farmer, Lorenzo Galante, Fadeel Joubran, Magdalena Kersting, Gerd Kortemeyer, Ute Kraus, Richard Meagher, Alina Neumann, Joao Pereira.
I) Overview
Is GR mentioned in the curriculum of this country?
Country 
yes 
no 
remarks 
Australia 

x 
federal curriculum: no, state curricula? 
Belgium (Flanders) 

x 
other regions? 
Brazil (Rio de Janeiro) 
x 

other regions? 
Czech Republic 

x 

Denmark 

x 

Finland 

x 

Germany 
x 

4 out of 16 states: yes, others: no 
Hungary 

x 

Italy 

x 

Iceland 

x 

Israel 

x 

Netherlands 

x 

Norway 
x 


Scotland 
x 


Sweden 
x 


Switzerland 
x 

in some cantons, in some schools 
Turkey 
x 


USA 

x 
federal curriculum: no 
II) Content
country 
curriculum on GR 
remarks 
Brazil (Rio de Janeiro) 
Recognize the present models of the universe (stellar evolution, black holes, curved space and big bang) 
Ensino Medio, age 15 
Germany (Bremen) 
Equivalence principle, experimental tests (precession of the perihelion of Mercury, light deflection near the sun, gravitational redshift) 
advanced level, ages 1617 
Germany (North RhineWestfalia) 
Basic statements of GR: gravitational time dilation, equivalence principle, Gravitation and time measurement (describe qualitatively); gravitation, time measurement and curvature of space (illustrate using models and graphics); impact on physical world view 
advanced level, ages 1617 
Germany (Saarland) 
Reference to GR as theory of gravitation and to its significance for astrophysics and cosmology 
age 16 
Germany (Saxony) 
Evidence for the impact of gravitation on light: reference to GR, gravitation and curved spacetime, experiments with atomic clocks, black holes in the universe 
standard level, age 16 

Selected aspects of GR: gravitation and curved spacetime, experiments with atomic clocks, black holes in the universe, big bang theory 
advanced level, age 16 
Norway 
… give a qualitative description of general relativity 
upper secondary school 
Scotland 
Knowledge that special relativity deals with motion in inertial (nonaccelerating) frames of reference and that general relativity deals with motion in noninertial (accelerating) frames of reference.  Statement of the equivalence principle (that it is not possible to distinguish between the effects on an observer of a uniform gravitational field and of a constant acceleration) and awareness of its consequences.  Consideration of spacetime as a representation of four dimensional space.  Knowledge that light or a freely moving object follows a geodesic (the shortest distance between two points) in spacetime.  Knowledge that GR leads to the interpretation that mass curves spacetime, and that gravity arises from the curvature of spacetime.  Representation of World lines for objects which are stationary, moving with constant velocity and accelerating.  Use of an appropriate relationship to solve problems relating to the Schwarzschild radius of a black hole.  Knowledge that time appears to be frozen at the event horizon of a black hole. 
Advanced Higher Physics, ages 1718 
Sweden 
… an introduction to the general theory of relativity 

Switzerland 
Basic principles of general relativity. // Basic principles of general relativity, experimental tests. // The students know ideas and basic concepts of general relativity in a qualitative way. // The students are given a short, qualitative insight into general relativity. // The students can explain the concept of spatial curvature using a simple example. // The students can state the limited field of application of special relativity and fundamental principles of general relativity using a simple example. // The students can explain the concept of spatial curvature using a simple example. 
From individual cantonal and school curricula 

The equivalence principle, the gravitational field, the curvature of spacetime 
Implementation of a school curriculum 
Turkey 
Big Bang, Cosmological models 
